Now that the Syrian cease-fire has officially collapsed, U.S. officials say Gulf states may arm Syrian rebels with shoulder-fired missiles to defend themselves against Syrian and Russian warplanes. These would mainly be supplied by Gulf Arab states, like Saudi Arabia, and possibly Turkey. Saudi Arabia in particular is unhappy with Russia’s involvement and growing influence in the region. The U.S. says it has effectively been able to prevent stepped up supplies of man-portable air defense systems, or MANPADS, by uniting Arab allies behind a strategy of training and use of infantry weapons. With the recent truce breaking down though, U.S. officials say Gulf states and Turkey may choose to stop following their lead and supply MANPADS to the opposition groups trying to oust Bashar al-Assad. Some U.S. lawmakers are trying to put more pressure on the Obama administration to do more to intervene in the conflict. Senators John McCain and Lindsey Graham, Republican critics of Obama, said in a statement that “Diplomacy in the absence of leverage is a recipe for failure” and are urging the White House to “compel” Russia and Syria to recommit to a diplomatic solution. International observers say the constant bombing of rebel-held neighborhoods in Aleppo have resulted in the deaths of more than 100 people every day for the last four day. The besieged residents are also said to be nearly out of food and fresh water, as well as basic medical supplies and blood for transfusions. Russia’s government responded to Western accusations of “war crimes” by saying their military campaign was a necessary response to terrorist groups. They went on to call the rhetoric and tone of Western diplomats “unacceptable”, implying they are prepared to continue their current course of action and further alienate the West and inspire more heavy handed involvement from Gulf States.